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Enhanced image security using residue number system and new Arnold transform

1Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Communication and Information Technology, Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State, Nigeria, Nigeria

2Department of Computer Science, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, Summit University, Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria, Nigeria

3Department of Telecommunication Science, Faculty of Communication and Information Sciences, University of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria, Nigeria

Received: 5 Jan 2021; Revised: 8 Jul 2021; Accepted: 18 Jul 2021; Available online: 4 Aug 2021; Published: 30 Oct 2021.
Open Access Copyright (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Department of Computer Engineering, Universitas Diponegoro under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0s.

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Abstract
This paper aims to improve the image scrambling and encryption effect in traditional two-dimensional discrete Arnold transform by introducing a new Residue number system (RNS) with three moduli and the New Arnold Transform. The study focuses on improving the classical discrete Arnold transform with quasi-affine properties, applying image scrambling and encryption research. The design of the method is explicit to three moduli set {2n, 2n+1+1, 2n+1-1}. These moduli set includes equalized and shapely moduli leading to the effective execution of the residue to binary converter. The study employs two methods: Arithmetic residue to the binary converter and an improved Arnold transformation algorithm. The encryption process uses MATLAB to accept a digital image input and subsequently convert the image into an RNS representation. The images are connected as a group. The resulting encrypted image uses the Arnold transformation algorithm. The encrypted image is used as input at decryption using the anti-Arnold (Reverse Arnold) transformation algorithm to convert the picture to the original RNS (original pixel value). Then the RNS was used to retransform the original RNS to its binary form. The study performed security analysis tests to test the strength of the proposed hybrid scheme. Security tests like histogram analysis, keyspace, key sensitivity, and correlation coefficient analysis were administered on the encrypted image. Results show that the hybrid system has used the improved Arnold transform algorithm with better security and no constraint as to image width and size.
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Keywords: Decryption, Encryption; Forward Conversion; Mixed Radix Conversion; Residue Number System; Reverse Conversion
Funding: College of Natural and Applied Sciences

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